Views: 0 Author: Site Editor Publish Time: 2023-04-27 Origin: Site
The most common methods of testing for synthetic metabolic steroid powders in athletes are urine and blood tests. Urine tests are more commonly used due to their non-invasive nature and ease of collection. In urine tests, metabolites of synthetic metabolic steroids are detected through gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) or liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis. Blood tests are less commonly used due to their invasive nature and the need for a trained medical professional to draw the blood. In blood tests, synthetic metabolic steroid powders can be detected directly or through their metabolites using similar chromatographic techniques as in urine tests.
Although non-athlete weightlifters make up the majority of anabolic steroid powders abuse, professional athletes and Olympic athletes occasionally use steroids to enhance performance or cheat in competition ("doping") and have brought the most attention to steroid abuse. The World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) was established in 1999 to consistently apply anti-doping policies in sports organizations and governments worldwide. Non-compliant organizations may face sanctions such as event cancellation, loss of WADA funding, or ineligibility to host events.
This pie chart shows which sports had the most anti-doping rule violations in 2015, with "bodybuilding," "athletics," and "weightlifting" topping the list.
Improvements in drug testing have increased the ability to detect anti-doping violations, leading to an increase in the number of violations reported in recent years. For example, the discovery of long-term steroid metabolites has extended the drug testing window, making it more difficult for athletes to simply stop using steroid powders before a competition to pass a drug test. Additionally, more sensitive technology allows for the detection of lower metabolite thresholds.
While testing programs are now in place to prevent professional and Olympic athletes from using steroid powders, new designer drugs continue to emerge that can evade detection, putting cheating athletes ahead of the testing game. To detect early use of designer steroids and provide more accurate baseline standards for each athlete, testing laboratories store data from each drug test sample. These samples are then used as reference points for future testing, eliminating the possibility of a person testing positive simply because their testosterone levels are naturally higher than the general population. Long-term use of designer steroid powders can suppress levels of endogenous steroids in urine, which may be the first indication that an athlete is using designer steroids.
Athletes who take over-the-counter nutritional supplements may think that these products are safe. However, nutritional supplements do not undergo the same pre-approval requirements and quality testing as FDA-approved drugs. For example, some supplements marketed as promoting weight loss have been found to contain banned stimulants like ephedra or clenbuterol. Other studies have shown that supplements sometimes contain hormone precursors or synthetic metabolites of steroid powders. In a study of 634 nutritional supplements from 13 different countries, 15% of the supplements contained some type of hormone precursor not listed on the label. Another study found that some undisclosed banned substances could be detected in drug tests up to 144 hours later.
Nutritional supplements sometimes contain banned substances not listed on the label. The FDA advises consumers to be cautious if a product meets any of the following criteria:
Claims to be an FDA-approved alternative to a drug or a product with similar effects to prescription drugs
Claims to be a legal alternative to synthetic steroid metabolites
Products marketed mainly in a foreign language or through spam email
Promises rapid effects (e.g., within minutes to hours) or long-lasting effects (e.g., 24 to 72 hours) for sexual enhancement products
Offers a warning about testing positive for performance-enhancing drugs
According to the World Anti-Doping Agency's regulations, athletes are responsible for any prohibited substance found in their sample, whether the ingestion was intentional or unintentional. However, if athletes can prove that the ingestion was not due to their significant fault or negligence, or under certain circumstances where the athlete did not intend to enhance performance, punishment may be reduced or avoided.